1.The epidemiology data does not convincingly show an adverse effect of low level alcohol ingestion during pregnancy in nonsmokers.
2. Low levels of alcohol ingestion in nonsmokers at the level of 1 drink/day or less have not been shown to adversely affect the pregnancy in regards to the studies reviewed on this web site.
3. Moderate levels of alcohol ingestion have an uncertain effect on pregnancy. (The literature is not fully consistent on this point, particularly with a variable definition of moderate alcohol intake in various studies.)
4. High levels of alcohol intake, including binge drinking, is adverse to pregnancy and fetus, and general good health.
5. Smoking, regardless of alcohol intake, is uniformly a negative factor in pregnancy and overall health status.
Any woman, in regards to alcohol ingestion, or any other health issues during pregnancy, should follow the recommendation of her personal physician. A woman should consult with her OB-Gyn doctor or health care provider about all issues relating to her specific pregnancy. This web site does not advocate the ingestion of alcohol by women during pregnancy.